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Appreciation of Cao Tang Youxian Poems

Time: 2016-08-08
Cao Tang's deeds are described in more detail in Tang Caizi Biography. Chuanyun: "Tang, the character Yaobin, Guizhou people. Beginning as a priest, Gongwen Fu. In the middle is a jinshi, Xiantongzhong engaged in the government. Tang and Luo Yin at the same time, the sentiment is not different. Tang began to clear, His interest is indifferent, with the bones of Ling Yun. After admiring the ancient fairies for their high sentiment, they often encounter adventures, but their talents are not diminished. Then they wrote fifty poems on fairy tales, and small poems on fairy tales. "The Chronicle of Tang Poetry" reads: "Beginning as a Taoist priest, and later as an envoy, he died of Xiantong. He wrote more than a hundred poems on fairy tales." In addition, "Quan Tang Poetry" said: "Beginning as a Taoist priest, then he is a priest. Zhonglei is engaged in the mission. "Three paragraphs of the biography, the difference lies in whether Cao Tang Jinshi and No. Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty had a total of 14 years, and Xizong Xiantong of a total of 15 years. Cao Tang worked in several shogunates during the Xiantong year, and it was not in contradiction with "stroke of Xiantong." It seems that in his early years he was a Taoist capable of writing poetry. Later he made many poems on fairy tales, which became famous and was accepted by certain festivals. He did not raise a scholar, and in the Jiedushi curtain, I am afraid that his status is very low, not the judge, the record room and the like. There is no sign of fellowship with eminent officials in his collection of poems. "Tang Caizi Biography" also recorded the story that he and Luo Yin ridicule each other, but in the two poems, there are no poems sung and donated to each other, we know that their friendship is not deep. From this perspective, it is presumed that Cao Tangzhi relied on his poetry for his later generations.

Cao Tang Shiwei has not heard of a single block copy. "Quan Tang Poems" includes two volumes of Cao Tang Poems, mainly large and small fairy poems. Dayouxian poems are seven-character poems. There are only seventeen poems in the collection, which are inconsistent with the fifty chapters in "The Book of Scholars of the Tang Dynasty". Obviously, thirty-three poems have been lost. There are ninety-nine poems in Xiaoyou, plus one quoted in Chronicle of Tang Poems, ninety-nine coexist. It turned out to be a hundred, only one was missing.

Youxian poetry has been there for a long time. Poems edited by Prince Zhao Ming, Xiao Tong, divided poems into 20 categories, the ninth category of which is Youxian. He chose one of He Jin, a poet of the Jin dynasty, and Guo Yan's seven, all of which were five-character poems. About the name You Xianshi began in the Jin Dynasty. At that time, Taoist thought became fashionable, and literati loved reading Taoist books. Cultivation of mind, alchemy and medication, hoping to prolong life and even rise to immortality. This kind of thinking manifests itself in literature and becomes a new kind of content, and the term Youxian marks this kind of content. Tang Shan Li Annotation "Selected Works" commented on Guo Xun's poems on fairy tales:

All the articles about traveling to the fairy tales are filthy and dusty, the baht is baht, the scenery is inverted, and the jade and the mysterious city are all bait. The system of the sorrow, Wen Duo self-narration, although the narrow central area, but the speech is vulgar and tired. Prior knowledge, good to know.

The first four sentences say that the content of Youxian poetry should describe things that dislike the world, despise officialdom, and go to Dongxian Mountain to take medicine and practice. The last four sentences are a review of Guo Xun's poems on fairy tales, saying that he has described himself too much. Although his rhetoric is not bad, his poetry is too narrow. The last two sentences said: Guo Xun's Youxian Shi has been criticized by his predecessors, which makes sense.

The so-called "former knowledge" (senior scholars) refers to 锺 嵘. 论 On Guo Yiyun in The Poem:

The charter Pan Yue, the style and style are brilliant, and they are playable. Began to become a flat body in Yongjia, so called ZTE first. "Han Lin" thought the poem. However, the works of "Youxian" are more generous and far-reaching Xuanzong. Its cloud "Nee He Tiger and Leopard", and the cloud "Wing Wing Qi Hazel Terrier", are both rough and cherished.

He compared Guo Yan's poems to Pan Yue's. Guo Yan was from the early Eastern Jin Dynasty. His poems have changed the plain style of the Western Jin Dynasty, so he was the first poet in the Jin Dynasty during the resurgence period. For Li Chong's "Han Lin Lun", Guo Yan was also listed among the poets. The above paragraph is his affirmation of Guo Yan's poetry. Next, I will comment on the poems of Xianyou by Guo Yan. He thought that these poems were exuberant and generous, and they were too far away from Taoism's imaginary and mysterious temperament. Another example is Guo Yan's two poems. They think that the content of these poems is just to vent their unsettling feelings, like Ruan Ji's "Wing Huai" poems, without any immortality.

The above is the origin of Youxian poetry. After the Taoist thoughts were carried out from time to time, landscape poems were popularized. After that, Yan Yan's palace poems were popularized. Since then no one has written a fairy tale poem.

In the Tang Dynasty, the word "xian" had a new meaning. Scholars in the Tang Dynasty often referred to beautiful women as fairies and fairies. Therefore, the prostitute is also called youxian. In the time of Wu Zetian, a writer Zhang Jian wrote a novel, "Youxian Cave," which is a story about his love with some prostitutes. There are many five-character poems in the novel, which is a new type of fairy poem. Cao Tang's Poems on Immortals were developed from "Amazing Caves".

There are seventeen poems on the fairy tale today, which seem to be poems inserted in many fairy stories. Seventeen poems are copied here:

(1) Emperor Han Wu descended on the Queen Mother of the West.

(2) Emperor Han Wu feasted on the West Queen in the palace.

(3) Liu Chen Ruan Zhao toured the rooftop.

(4) Liu Ruandong met a fairy.

(5) Fairy sends Liu Ruan out of the hole.

(6) There is Huai Liu Ruan in the Fairy Cave.

(7) Liu Ruan will not see the fairy again on the rooftop.

(8) The weaver girl is pregnant with a morning glory.

(9) Wang Yuan feast Ma Jing Cai Jingzhai.

(10) Xun Lvhua will return to Jiu Su and leave no real person.

(11) Mother Mu Yanyan at Jiuguang Liuxia Pavilion.

(12) Zihe Zhang Xiuzhen.

(13) Zhang Shuozhong Du Lanxiang.

(14) Jade daughter Du Lanxiang marries Zhang Shuo.

(15) Xiao Shi went up with jade.

(16) Huang Chuping will enter Jinhua Mountain.

(17) Mrs. Li, Emperor Hanwu.

There are eleven stories here. The story of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty (1 and 2), the story of Liu Chen and Ruan Zhao entering Tiantai Mountain (3 to 7), the story of Cowherd and Girl Weaver (8), the story of Ma Gu (9), and the story of Pu Luhua (10) ), The story of Mu Tianzi meeting with Queen Mother Xi (11), the story of Zhang Xiuzhen (12), the story of Du Lanxiang (13, 14), the story of Qin Nu Nong Yu and Xiao history (15) The story of Ping (sixteen), the story of Emperor Hanwu and Mrs. Li (seventeen). Except for Zhang Xiuzhen, the rest are fairy stories familiar to scholars and ordinary citizens. I suspect that these poems by Cao Tang were used as episodes by those who narrated stories at the time. They are the same as "Li Wa Song" in "Biography of Li Wa" and "Feng Yan Ge" in "Feng Yan Biography". Cao Tang provided a lyrics for each story, and later generations collected them to compile a poem for him. Only the poems of Liu Chen and Ruan Zhao who entered the Tiantai Mountain to meet the fairy still retain as many as five poems. One or two. If a story with a song is the earliest form of rap literature, then a story with many songs is an already developed form of rap literature. From these poems of Cao Tang, we can clearly see that poems are in line with the development of the story. Telling a story and singing a poem (song) is completely in the form of pingtan today.

In the Song Dynasty, the literary form of word emerged. So poetry is no longer used as a lyric in rap literature. Zhao Delin's twelve "Shang Diao Lian Hua" drum sub-words sung the story of Zhang Sheng and Cui Yingying, which was the singing version of the drum girls at that time. Later, in the Jin Dynasty, there appeared the tunes of Dong Jieyuan's "The West Chamber", which is also the narration of the story of the rap Zhang Shengyingying in the Jin Dynasty.

So far, I have clarified two questions about Cao and Tang's great fairy poems. First, the origin and development of fairy poems. Second, the role of these poems is inferred from their title form. I thought it was the song of the Tang Dynasty critics.

There are ninety-nine poems in Xiaoyouxian, which have no title and are not meant to chant a certain story. The content is to write about the fairy's life or thoughts and feelings. This is a set of one hundred poems with mixed chanting styles. Qian Yong has a hundred "Untitled on the River", all of which are five-character quatrains and write the style of river boat tourism. Wang Jian has a hundred poems on the palace, all of which are seven-character quatrains and write miscellaneous things about the palace. Luo Yi has a hundred poems "Be Honger", all of which are seven-word quatrains, and writes the prostitute Honger he mourns. Hu Zeng has a hundred "Yongshi", all of which are seven-character quatrains and chant historical figures. This type of poetry, commonly known as "Hundred Poems," also emerged in the Tang Dynasty.

Now let ’s enjoy the five poems of Liu Chen and Ruan Zhao who met the fairy on the rooftop in the fairy tale poems. Maybe they have summarized the whole story.

Liu Chen Ruan Zhaoyou Rooftop

Trees enter the Tiantai Stone Road, and the clouds and grass are completely dust-free.

Haze was indifferent to life, and Mizuki was suspiciously dreaming.

Jimingyan often goes to the moon next month, and Chungbudong is often in the spring.

I do not know where to go here, I must ask the host about Taoyuan.

The first six sentences describe the scenery that Liu and Ruan walked into the depths of the rooftop. The last two sentences are the end of the chanting and turn to the suggestion of speaking. Liao Wenbing explained the cloud in "Tang Poetry Advocacy": "This statement follows the tree into the rooftop, with few traces, and the stone road is as new. Among them, the cloud is gentle, the grass is quiet, and there is no dust and vulgar dye. I remember the events before my life, but I saw that Mizuki is deep, and I suspect it is the body after the dream. Five or six or two, the words I heard in the cave are fairy chickens and dogs. I do n’t want to live here without the owner. Just ask Taoyuan. "

The whole poem has been explained in this way, and no further explanation is needed. In the future, the poems are intended to be a transcript of Liao Wenbing's explanations, for readers to learn the ancients' methods of lecturing poems. However, two points need to be added here: First, the ancients used the word "hole", which has a different meaning than it does now. For example, the so-called "in the cave" in this poem does not refer to the caves of the mountains, but to a flat land surrounded by four mountains, which is the so-called "bazi" in the southwestern provinces. The so-called "Blessing of Heaven and Heaven" by Taoism is an isolated plain in the mountains. The dam in the deep mountains where the ethnic minorities live is also called a "hole" or a writing "峒". Therefore, "in a barking cave" cannot be understood as a dog barking in a cave.

Meet the Immortals in Liu Ruandong

The colors of the sky and the trees are dark, and the deep road of Xia Zhonglan is slim.

There are no birds and birds on Yundou Mountain, and there is Sheng Spring along the sound of water.

In the sand of Bisha, far away, the sun and the moon are growing by the red branches.

May there be someone out in the flowers, so that the immortal dog barks Liu Lang.

The first six sentences of this poem describe the scenery Liu and Ruan travelled all the way. Encountered many peach trees, picking peaches and eating, suddenly felt light and healthy. Suddenly a dog came out to bark at them, so I hope someone comes out to stop the dog.

Liao Wenbing explained the cloud: "These words come to the rooftop, the weather is peaceful and the trees are green, the trees are deep and the clouds are heavy, and the journey is remote and far away. And the clouds are full of mountains, and there are no birds and birds; Sheng spring. Its sand is sparkling and wrinkled; its tree is burning and red. It is covered with a sacred sky, so the sun and the moon are different from the years in the world. The dogs who do n’t care about the fairy family also bark. I hope there is someone in the flower shop, so I don't need to avoid it. Maybe I will find a victory in the hole. "

Fairy sends Liu Ruan out of the hole

The diligent relatives sent out the rooftop, but the fairyland could come again.

Yunye must return to strong drink, and Yushu will not open more frequently.

The opening of Huadang should grow up, and the water will never return.

Luxitou never see it again, Bishan Mingyue shines moss.

Before this poem, probably there should be one or two poems, singing Liu and Ruan meeting the fairies, and the fairies asked them to eat flax rice. Now that the poem has been sung to the fairy, farewell, obviously the story is missing a large section.

Liao Wenbing explained the cloud: "This poem is set as the fairy's intention to give it away. The words are sent diligently, and when you leave the mountain, you won't have to come to this wonderland again. After the return of the king, the wine of the fairy family must be used as a strong drink to dispel worries. The book in the hole should not be opened frequently, and it will be spread by obscene immortals. From then on, everything about the immortals is also quite different. Flowers open the mouth of the hole, and the time is always there; the water is in the world, when there is no return. Farewell to the stream next to the two people, and the bright moon over Bishan reflects the moss. "

What I want to add here are: (1) "Yunye" is the wine name given to Liu and Ruan by the fairy. They advised Liu and Ruan to drink immortal wine to prolong their lives. "Strong" is reluctant. If you don't drink, you should barely drink a few glasses. "Jade Book" is a Taoist book. The content is about health remedies or spells for relieving evils. Therefore, the fairy advised them to turn it over when necessary. Otherwise, if you read it often, you will damage Xianshu.

Huai Liu Ruan in Fairy Cave

If you don't make the Qing Seiric clothes, Chen Meng knows the crane dream long.

There is Tianchun silence in the cave, and there is no road in the world.

Yusha Yaocao has a stream of turquoise water, and its flowing peach blossoms are full of fragrant incense.

Xiaolu's wind lanterns are easy to fall apart, and there is nowhere to visit Liu Lang in this life.

Liao Wenbing explained Yun: "In the first words, since Liu and Ruan were separated, the lazy will be the magical song of Yaosi Li, thinking that Liu and Ruan have returned to the world, and their dreams are not as good as those of fairy dreams. To sum up, I live in a cave Here, do n’t have one day, but the spring is lonely; the prince is in the world, looking for nowhere, but the moon is so bright. Why are the dust and crane dreams so different? Five or six words, fairy tales are always there, but not With Liu and Ruan, now that Liu and Ruan are gone, if Ruo Xiaoxiao exposes the wind lanterns, it is easy to fall apart, and the fairy dream is separated from the world. It is unknown where to visit Liu Langer in this life. "

Liu Ruan will no longer see the fairies on the rooftop

After visiting Yuzhen from Tiantai, the moss and white stone have become dust.

Shengge is lonely and deep, Yunhe is slumped and neighbour.

The grass is always non-pre-colored, and the haze is not like spring in previous years.

The peach blossoms are still flowing, but I didn't see the persuade.

Liao Wenbing explained the cloud: "These words are moss and dust, but the real jade is not visible, but there is still nothing like Yun He Sheng singing. Covering the grass and trees at that time, it is not out of sight, but the color of the previous years, the spring of previous years, has been different "Although the peach blossoms are flowing, I will not change, if I don't see anyone who advises wine?"

This is the end of the story. This is the last song. The story of Liu Chen and Ruan Zhao appeared in Youminglu, but only said that Liu and Ruan had returned home, and they had seen the seventh generation of grandchildren. What Cao Tangshi expressed was that the fairy missed Liu, Ruan, and Liu and Ruan went to the mountains to find them, but they did not see the fairy. This was an added part of Mr. Storytellers at the time, much like the story of Cui Hutaohua, which changed from a myth to a legend.

There are also four poems of Xiaoxianxian in order to make it clear.

Zhicao Yunhua blooms in spring, and Swiss cigarettes show wet towels.

Yutong privately boasted books and secretly wrote Yunyao as a gift.

Last night, I was invited to feast on Xingtan, and drunkenly walked away.

Hongyunsai Road was tight in the east, blowing through the Hibiscus Crown.

Xiao Qing Yun Ye Zi Yao Yao, invited Yun and Jasper Sheng.

Huaxia accidentally played a song, because the world knows Dong Shuangcheng.

Temporarily swim with the uncle, drinking deer because of Cui Shuitou.

The palace was lonely and people were not seen.

① "Zihua" is the original "Bihua". The word "Bi" is not the same as the word "Cui" in the previous sentence. It's much better to change it to "藕花" today. I am explaining Tang poetry and changing the characters without permission. It is too abrupt, but I want to use this as an example to study the wording of poetry with readers.

Original article: "Hundred Words of Tang Poems". Author: Shizhecun
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