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Appreciation of the three poems by Zhang Ji

Time: 2016-08-08
Zhang Huan, born in Qiantang (now Hangzhou, Zhejiang), has no idea of his character, the son of poet Zhang Xiaobiao. Zhang Xiaobiao had to enter the junior college for ten years, and only in the Yuan and Fourteen (August 1919), was he and the first. After that, I went home to Jiaqing ①, and sent my hometown friends with poems, Shi Yun:

And the tenth official of the tenth victory, Jintang plated out Changan.

The horse head gradually entered Yangzhou Guo, washing his eyes for the reporter.

—— "Posted to Guangling"

Poetry says that the Jinshi and the first officer are more glorious than the official. I am now like gold plating and going home to save money. The journey is about to reach Yangzhou, so send this poem to my friends, please clean your eyes and change your views on me. It is a common saying in the Tang Dynasty that the jinshi is admitted to the examination. "Jintang" means "gold liquor". Today, people study abroad or obtain a certain higher-level qualification, called "gilded", which is the origin of the etymology.

This poem by Zhang Xiaobiao reflects the importance that intellectuals in the Tang Dynasty paid to Jinshi and Di, and it also reflects Zhang Xiaobiao's narrow temperament. At that time, a poet Li Shen wrote a satirical poem "Answering Filial Piety":

Fake gold is plated with real gold, if it is not gold.

Ten years in Changan Fangyi, why fasting with high heart.

After reading this poem, Zhang Xiaobiao was greatly ashamed, but at last he failed to make a big deal.

His son Zhang Xun also missed first. In the last years of Xiantong (AD 874), he had quite a poem name, and he thought he could become famous. In the Qianfu, Gao Xiang knew the tributes, Zhang Ye went to the exam. No one knows that Gao Xiang brought his proud student Shao Anshi from Changsha and accepted An Shi instead of Zhang Ye. In addition to Zhang Yu's resentment, he wrote a song that made him fortunate enough to be known to future generations:

Dongdu Wangxing

Lazy Xiuzhu Cuiwang high platform, Meiyue Lianjuan hate.

Even if the eastward tour was useless, the king brought the beauties by himself.

This poem is sentimental with palace resentment. The election system of the Tang Dynasty sometimes set up an examination room in Luoyang, the eastern capital, but this was not the norm. Zhang Ye took an exam in Luoyang, so he was better off than Dongdu. The first sentence said: The beauty in the palace was too lazy to decorate. The second sentence said: Because of the resentment in the heart, her eyebrows could not be closed. "Brow month" means crescent-shaped eyebrows. The third sentence said: Even if you go to the east, there is no benefit. The fourth sentence said: Who knows that the king himself brought the beauties, and would not spoil the beauties in the palace. The poem is very sarcastic to Gao Xiang. "Tang Poems" only selected two of his seven poems. In addition to this one, the other is "Burning Book Pit."

Book burning pit

The bamboo cymbal smoke was sold to the Emperor, and Guanhe empty-locked Zulongju.

Xu Hui was not cold, and Liu Xiang never read.

In order to restrain intellectuals' thoughts and consolidate their dictatorship, the Emperor Qin Shi seized all Confucian books and burned them all. He also buried more than 460 political dissidents, mainly Confucians, alive. This is the so-called "burning books and writing Confucianism" in history. It can also be said to be the first "cultural revolution" in world history. According to the "Historical Records of the First Emperor", the burning of the book was in the first thirty-four years of the first emperor. At that time, Qin Shihuang ordered historians to burn the history books of countries other than Qin. Except for the public collections used by the doctors, the "Poetry and Hundred Poems" books held by the folks must be handed over to the county guards or county captains within 30 days of the order's arrival. After the book is burned, if the people talk about poems in private, they will be sentenced to death. "The ancient is not the present", those who oppose the current regime, kill their families. Officials who know but do not expose are guilty. Books on medicine, divination and tree planting need not be burned.

Hang Ru was in thirty-five years. At that time, the Confucian students in the capital Xianyang still had dissatisfaction, and the first emperor ordered an interrogation, convicting the name "to seduce the ghosts for the sake of the monster". At the time of the interrogation, the students reported each other, and finally, more than 460 Confucian students who were judged to be banned were trapped in Xianyang.

From this we can see that the books were scattered and burned in various places, and Confucianism was only in Xianyang. I do not know when someone read the word "burning a book pit" in succession, so forged a monument at the bottom of Lintong Mountain: Qin Shihuang burning a book pit. This poem by Zhang Huan is a chant of places of historical interest and nostalgia. Poetry says: Soon after the firework that burned the book (bamboo razor) was extinguished, Qin Shihuang's career emptied because Shihuang collapsed in July 37. "Zulong" was a metaphor of the people's first emperor at that time. "Ancestral" was "beginning", and "dragon" symbolized the emperor. Before the emperor died, he used various methods to adhere to his Guanhe. Now, where he lives, his stubbornness is in vain. Therefore, Shi Yun said: "Guanhe empty locks the ancestral home of the dragon." The first emperor burned the book and Confucianism to lock his Guanhe, lest the scholar rise to rebellion. I didn't know that the bamboo ash in the pit had not cooled down, and Liu Bang and Xiang Yu had rebelled outside the customs. Neither Liu Bang nor Xiang Yu was a reading intellectual.

This poem by Zhang Huan is very new, and his satire is sharp against the intellectual Qin Shihuang. But the main idea of this poem is to tell a truth: the motivation of the revolution is not the intellectuals. Intellectuals can use his knowledge to comment on politics, right and wrong, good and evil, and whether they can be judged by his knowledge. But for rulers who exercise benevolence, he can only add icing on the cake; for rulers who exercise harsh government, He has no ability to pull him down. The clever rulers in the history of our country do not attach great importance to "virtually negotiating". Qin Shihuang overestimated the role of intellectuals and did the stupid thing of burning books and Confucianism, which did not help his "empire." It is the Chinese people, especially the oppressed farmers, who know their own strength. So they ridiculed intellectuals: "The talent is rebellious. Three years is not a big deal."

At the same time, Luo Yin also had a poem called "Book Burning Pit":

A thousand years left a pit dust, and the roadside cultivator was also distressed.

Zulong counted things well and lived the poem book.

The three or four sentences of this poem say that Qin Shihuang calculated wrongly, thinking that the poems can really save the oppressed people. This meaning, however, can be said to "get my heart first".

During the "Ten Years of Catastrophe", this poem was popular for a while. But only the last sentence was intercepted, as the theoretical basis for the revolution did not require intellectuals, it became a sufficient reason to "sweep all cattle, ghosts, snakes and gods", and the result was the same as Qin Shihuang. This is unimaginable by the poet Zhang Yong.

This poem by Zhang Huan thought that Qin Shihuang dug a large pit under Laoshan to burn books. The so-called "pit ash" refers to the ashes of bamboo puppet (book). This is inconsistent with the facts. The pit was dug to bury Confucians alive. At the beginning of the Song Dynasty, Yang Yi, who advocated the Western Kunming style, had a poem chanting Qin Shihuang (one of the first three poems in "The Emperor").

The Confucian pit was not cold enough to kill the mountain fire.

The poems of these two sentences are completely copied from Zhang Xun, but he switched to Xiang Yu and burned the house of Afang. Fang Xugu selected this poem into "The Soul of Kui Kui" and commented: "The seventh sentence is the best, and the method of writing poetry is also. In this way, the authors and reviewers are both confused. The author knows that this is a Confucian pit, not a book burning pit, but he stole Zhang Xun's verse and changed a word, saying that "Confucian pit is not cold." More than 460 Confucians were buried alive, not burned to death. The pit was not heated by fire, how could it be "not cold"? This poem is simply unreasonable, but Fang Xugu thinks this sentence is "best" and is used to teach people "the method of making poetry". Why not laugh? Fang Xugu said that the two sentences were continuous with the word "fire", but did not expect that there was no fire in the Confucian pit. Now I change the sentence for the author to "burning the book without embers and burning the mountain fire".

There are only twenty-six poems left in Zhang Quan's Poems of the Tang Dynasty. Fang Qian has a poem entitled "Gift Jinshi Zhangyi". The first two sentences said: "Although the tapestry uses old machines, it will be renewed and updated." This means that although he uses the old form to write poems, he can have new ideas. The conclusion is: "At this time, the genius should be bitter, and the bitter ghost should not know." Zhang Ye is also a bitter poet like Meng Jiao and Jia Dao. It ’s just that they do n’t have a high score, and even if they ’re struggling, they have n’t had enough phrases to surprise the ghosts.

Luo Yin also has a poem "Send chapter to go to lift", its couplet cloud: "The long-distance chaos should be broken, and at first glance, the eyes are gradually opened." It seems that Huang Chao's soldiers only entered Beijing after the defeat. However, "The Chronicle of Tang Poems" said that he was "a scholar who ascended the emperor's fortune," and it was only six years before Qianxu Zhi and Huang Chao raised their troops. Zhang Huan was not in the ranks of Gao Xiang, or finally became a jinshi in the next year or two, but he did not agree with Luo Yin's poetry. Since then, his biography is "indetermined in exile," which is probably the influence of the war.

There is another poem worth noting:

As far as the southeast road is by the Wujiang River, it is the gloomy and rainy day.

The gull is not inclined to rain the bank, and the waves are bullying the windboat.

I stopped sailing to watch the Fengfeng Island Temple, envying the fishermen to go fishing.

Gu Ruyi is bound to be boundlessly happy in ancient times.

There is no title in this poem, it is only titled "Variant Poem". The first, third, fifth, and seventh sentences of rhythmic poems always use no rhyme. However, this poem has four rhyme rhymes: "an", "annual", "looking", and "calculating". This is a variant rhythmic poem he created. Gu Kuang wrote "Wu Ti" poems, Wen Tingyun wrote "Dual Tone" poems, Li Shangyin wrote "Dangyu Pairs" poems, and Zhang Xun's "transformation" poems all reflected the form of metrical poetry after the middle Tang Dynasty. He tried to innovate but failed.

① The Tang people went to Jinshi and came home to save their relatives later, which is called "Jiaqing". Also known as "Bai Jiaqing".

Original article: "Hundred Words of Tang Poems". Author: Shizhecun
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